Text mining: Analyzing Lana Del Rey’s Lyrics

About the data

Main albums by Lana Del Rey:
1. Born to die (2012)
2. Paradise (2012)
3. Ultraviolence (2014)
4. Lust for Life (2017)
5. Norman F**king Rockwell (2019)
1. Keyword analysis - word frequencies
2. Sentimental analysis - polarity

Keyword analysis

Basic word counts

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Summary of word counts of 108 songs
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Top 5 songs with the most words
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Top 9 songs with the least words

Word frequencies — Let’s start with one-word (unigram) and two-word (bigram) word-clouds!

# Pre-processing function #1
qdap_clean <- function(x){
x <- bracketX(x)
x <- replace_number(x)
x <- replace_abbreviation(x)
x <- replace_contraction(x)
x <- replace_ordinal(x)
x <- replace_symbol(x)
x <- tolower(x)
return(x)
}
# Pre-processing function #2
clean_corpus <- function(corpus){
corpus <- tm_map(corpus, removePunctuation)
corpus <- tm_map(corpus, content_transformer(tolower))
corpus <- tm_map(corpus, stemDocument, language = "english")
new_stops <- c("ah ah","oh oh","ooh ooh", "da da","yeah yeah", "will","can",
"come","take", "jump","want", "just", "get","got","make",
"wanna")
corpus <- tm_map(corpus, removeWords, words = c(stopwords("en"), new_stops))
corpus <- tm_map(corpus, stripWhitespace)
return(corpus)
}
#Pre-processing: tokenization
tokenizer <- function(x) {
NGramTokenizer(x, Weka_control(min = 1, max = 1))
}

“One” keyword analysis

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Uni-gram word cloud with words that occurred at least 30 times
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Unigram with the highest frequency bar chart

So what does “like” and “love” mean in the lyrics?

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Correlation of the word “like” with every other word in LDR’s songs
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Correlation of the word “love” with every other word in LDR’s songs

“Two” keyword analysis

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Bi-gram word cloud with words that occurred at least 3 times
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Bigram with the highest frequency bar chart

Words associated with “God know” and “feel like”

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Correlation of the word “god know” with every other word in LDR’s songs
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Correlation of the word “feel like” with every other word in LDR’s songs

Let’s get sentimental!

The polarity of LDR’s songs

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Overall polarity calculation
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Polarity analysis on all LDR’s songs

Polarity on main albums

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Lana’s wheel of emotions: It’s all about joy, anticipation, and trust.

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Wheel of emotions on LDR’s main albums
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Details about the wheel of emotions (positivepsychology.com)

Treemap — sentiment scores of Lana Del Rey’s main albums

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LDR’s main albums sentiment treemap

Polarity on keywords used

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Most common positive and negative words found in LDR’s songs
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Sentiment analysis on keywords

Wrap up — What is your favorite LDR album?

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Sentimental movement based on time
My all-time favorite LDR songs:1.Ride (2012)
2.Brooklyn Baby (2014)
3.Lust for Life (2017)

Written by

Changing the world with data points, one word at a time. #naturalLanguageProcessing #textMining #sentimentAnalysis

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